Volume 33, Issue 127 (December 2020)                   IJN 2020, 33(127): 45-57 | Back to browse issues page


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Inanlou M, Baha R, Seyedfatemi N, Fadaee Aghdam N, Basirinezhad M. Self-efficacy and the Related Demographic Characteristics in Nursing Students. IJN 2020; 33 (127) :45-57
URL: http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-3372-en.html
1- Department of Pediatric and Psychiatric Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2- Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (Corresponding author) Tel: 09124621502 Email: robabebaha@yahoo.com
3- Nursing Care Research Center, Department of Pediatric and Psychiatric Nursing , School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4- Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
5- Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1869 Views)
Background & Aims: Self-efficiency refers to the belief of individuals in their abilities for adapting to special conditions. Those with sufficient self-efficacy are better able to adapt with the needs of specific situations, while the individuals who lack high self-efficacy have difficulty performing activities under the same circumstances. Furthermore, individuals with higher self-efficacy are more successful in facing the challenges of future life. Self-efficacy results in independence and increases self-confidence. Job satisfaction and commitment to stay in a profession also depend on self-efficacy. Individuals with a higher sense of self-efficacy have more power to withstand obstacles and failures in life. There is a strong correlation between self-efficacy, motivation, and performance. In the educational setting, self-efficacy refers to a student's belief in the ability to perform tasks. Students with higher self-efficacy beliefs apply more interest, effort, and perseverance in their tasks and are confident in their abilities. They are also more successful in their education and future career. In the nursing profession, nurses with high self-efficacy are able to manage patients under various conditions. Since nurses are in long-term contact with patients, their high self-efficacy and positive belief in their abilities could help them better understand, manage, and cope with the changes in the patient's condition. On the other hand, low self-efficacy is associated with high levels of anxiety, stress, and depression. The level of self-efficacy in nursing students could predict their role in community health. Nurses with low self-efficacy are unable to take the necessary measures for patient care, while the increased risk of nursing errors could jeopardize patient safety and lead to adverse consequences. These issues are more likely in less experienced nursing students. The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-efficacy and the related demographic characteristics in nursing students.
Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational study was conducted on 358 nursing students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran who were selected via stratified random sampling. The total number of the nursing students was 806, which was considered as a class for the sampling of each academic year. Based on the number of the students in each academic year (228 students in the first year, 219 students in the second year, 183 in the third year, and 177 in the fourth year), 100 students were selected from the first year, 99 students were selected from the second year, 79 students were selected from the third year, and 80 students were selected from the fourth year. After obtaining sufficient information from the Department of Education on the number of the classes and students in each class, the researcher randomly selected the classes and used a random number table for the sampling of each class. After receiving information about the objectives of the study, the students provided written informed consent and completed the questionnaires anonymously. In addition, the students were assured of confidentiality terms regarding their personal information and responses, as well as the fact that the data would be analyzed by a computer on a code-specific basis and would not necessarily be a family name. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and Sherer general self-efficacy questionnaire. The demographic data included age, gender, marital status, academic year, place of residence, economic status, and work experience. In addition, the general self-efficacy questionnaire developed by Scherer et al. (1982) was used to assess the self-efficacy level of the students. The questionnaire consists of 23 items, 17 of which are focused on general self-efficacy, and the other six items are dedicated to self-efficacy experiences in social settings. We used the 17-item scale in our study to measure the subjects' beliefs about their ability to overcome different situations. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using one-way ANOVA, independent t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test at the significance level of P≤ 0.05. In addition, the STROBE checklist was used to report the research.
Results: In total, 66.2% of the participants were female aged 20-22 years. The mean score of self-efficacy of the nursing students was 63.69 ± 9.09, and no significant correlations were observed between the self-efficacy level and demographic characteristics (P>0.05). Compared to the other two groups, the students aged 20-22 years would significantly drop out, and if they did not succeed in learning new things, they would simply give up and are unable to handle their problems in life (P<0.05). The female students were significantly more hesitant than the male students about their organized plans and would simply give up (P<0.05). In addition, the students of the third year were significantly less able to concentrate on their tasks compared to the other groups and also unable to face unexpected problems well; in this degree, the students were less self-reliant and would simply give up (P<0.05). The results indicated that the students living in dormitories mostly gave up their part-time job (P=0.042), and those with a poor financial status significantly avoided learning new things if it was difficult compared to the other two groups (P=0.027). The students with work experience could do their job better (P=0.043).
Conclusion: According to the results, the mean score of self-efficacy of the nursing students was 63.69. As future nurses, nursing students must have a high level of self-efficacy to properly manage patients, as well as the other members of the treatment team so as to have a better professional life and social satisfaction. Self-efficacy also enhances the tasks undertaken by nurses, thereby reducing errors and increasing the quality of patient care. Given the importance of students in the health care system and considering that the level of self-efficacy predicts their performance and mental health, providing solutions to improve the level of self-efficacy should be prioritized in the programs of the educational systems of nursing schools.
 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: nursing
Received: 2020/09/12 | Accepted: 2020/12/12 | Published: 2020/12/12

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