Volume 28, Issue 95 (August 2015)                   IJN 2015, 28(95): 1-10 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Valikhani A, Khormaei F. Religion and Pain: Prediction of Pain Dimensions Based on Patience. IJN. 2015; 28 (95) :1-10
URL: http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2177-en.html
Associate Professor, Department of Education Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran; (*Corresponding author). Tel: +98 9173374879 Email: khormaee_78@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1654 Views)

Abstract

Background & Aim: Chronic pain as a disabling disorder dose not completely respond to the routine medical treatments. Consequently identification of the risk factors and psychologic-protective factors of pain such as religion and spirituality seems necessary. The aim of this study was to predict the physical, emotional, and cognitive dimensions of pain based on patience. 

Material & Methods: It was a correlational structural equation modeling study. A total of 110 patients with cardiovascular diseases were recruited by convenient sampling from the outpatient clinic of Imam Reza in the city of Shiraz. Data was collected by a researcher made patience scale and chronic pain inventory and analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and structural equation modeling using SPSS-PS (v.16) and Amos 16.0.

Results: The results showed that patience is negatively correlated with total pain and its physical, emotional, and cognitive dimensions (p< 0.01). There was a significant negative relationship between the subscales of patience, tolerance and consent with total pain and its triple dimensions (p< 0.05). The subscale of delay was negatively associated with total pain and its physical dimension (p< 0.05). There was no significant relationship between transcendence and persistence with pain and its dimensions. The structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that the patience latent variable has strongly predicted the pain (β= -0.44, p< 0.05).

Conclusion: Regarding the findings, it could be concluded that psychological factors especially religious variables play an important role in alleviating pain in cardiovascular diseases. In between, patience as an important variable in the experience of physical, emotional and psychological dimensions of pain could have an important role.

Full-Text [PDF 750 kb]   (691 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: nursing
Received: 2015/04/27 | Accepted: 2015/08/8 | Published: 2015/08/8

References
1. Asghari moghadam M.A. [Pain and Measurement .published in Roshd, Tehran]. 2011:10-12.
2. Persian
3. Stonerock Jr GL. The utility of brief cognitive skills training in reducing pain catastrophizing during experimental pain. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, University of North Carolina, ChapelHill. 2011.
4. Mohammadi zeidi E, Heidarnia A, & Hajizadeh E. [Examining life style in cardiovascular patients]. Medical Daneshvar 2006; 13(61): 49-56. Persian
5. Moeini M. [Patients\' Religious Beliefs in Cardiac Pain Situations: A Qualitative Research]. Journal of Qualitative Research in Health Sciences. 2014;3(1):104-13. Persian
6. Mäntyselkä PT, Turunen JH, Ahonen RS, Kumpusalo EA. Chronic pain and poor self-rated health. JAMA. 2003;290(18):2435-42. [DOI:10.1001/jama.290.18.2435]
7. O\'Brien EM, Waxenberg LB, Atchison JW, Gremillion HA, Staud RM, McCrae CS, et al. Negative mood mediates the effect of poor sleep on pain among chronic pain patients. Clin J Pain. 2010;26(4):310-9. [DOI:10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181c328e9]
8. Pinquart M, Shen Y. Depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with chronic physical illness: an updated meta-analysis. J Pediatr Psychol. 2011;36(4):375-84. [DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jsq104]
9. Gerbershagen K, Gerbershagen HU, Lindena GU, Lachenmayer L, Lefering R, Schmidt CO, et al. Prevalence and impact of pain in neurological inpatients of a German teaching hospital. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110(7):710-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2008.04.011]
10. Phillips CJ. The cost and burden of chronic pain. Rev Pain 2009; 3(1): 2-5 [DOI:10.1177/204946370900300102]
11. Chiesa A, Serretti A. Mindfulness-based interventions for chronic pain: a systematic review of the evidence. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17(1):83-93. [DOI:10.1089/acm.2009.0546]
12. Mawani A-N. Reducing chronic pain using mindfulness meditation: An exploration of the role of spirituality. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, University of Manitoba, Canada. 2009.
13. Moreira-Almeida A, Koenig HG. Religiousness and spirituality in fibromyalgia and chronic pain patients. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2008;12(5):327-32. [DOI:10.1007/s11916-008-0055-9]
14. Büssing A, Michalsen A, Balzat HJ, Grünther RA, Ostermann T, Neugebauer EA, et al. Are spirituality and religiosity resources for patients with chronic pain conditions? Pain Med. 2009;10(2):327-39. [DOI:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00572.x]
15. Shokoufefard S, Khormaei F. [Investigating the prediction Patience and its components on student aggression]. Ravanshenasi-va Din. 2012; 5(2): 79-92. Persian Ghobaribonab B, Khodayarifard, M, Shokouhiyekta, M. [The relationship between trust in God with anxiety, patience, and hope in adverse conditions]. Proceeding role of religion in mental health 2004. Persian Hoseinsabet F. [Effectiveness of patience education on anxiety, depression, and happiness]. Studies in Islam & Psychology J. 2008; 2:79-92. Persian Kalantari S, Farmani A. [The comparison of the Facets of Mindfulness among Patients with Major Depression, Generalized anxiety Disorder and Normal Individuals]. ISMJ. 2015;18(4):773-85. Persian
16. Schnitker SA. An examination of patience and well-being. J Posit Psychol. 2012;7(4):263-80. [DOI:10.1080/17439760.2012.697185]
17. Dezutter J, Robertson LA, Luyckx K, Hutsebaut D. Life satisfaction in chronic pain patients: the stress‐buffering role of the centrality of religion. J Sci Study Relig. 2010;49(3):507-16. [DOI:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2010.01525.x]
18. Mwaria C. Pain Management for the Terminally Ill: The Role of Race and Religion. The Journal of IMA. 2011;43(3):208-214.
19. Clayton-Jones D, Haglund K. The Role of Spirituality and Religiosity in Persons Living With Sickle Cell Disease A Review of the Literature. J Holist Nurs. 2015: 686-703.
20. Feuille M, Pargament K. Pain, mindfulness, and spirituality: A randomized controlled trial comparing effects of mindfulness and relaxation on pain-related outcomes in migraineurs. J Health Psychol. 2015;20(8):1090-106. [DOI:10.1177/1359105313508459]
21. Lysne CJ, Wachholtz AB. Pain, Spirituality, and Meaning Making: What Can We Learn from the Literature? Religions. 2010;2(1):1-16. [DOI:10.3390/rel2010001]
22. Khormaei F, Farmani A, Soltani E. [The construction and examining of the psychometric properties of patience scale]. Educational Measurement J. 2015;5(17):83-99. Persian
23. Mohammadian MA. [The nature of psychological factors and coping skills in people with limp pain. Unpublished Master\' thesis. Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran]. 1995. Persian
24. Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behav Res Methods. 2008;40(3):879-91. [DOI:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879]
25. O\'Connell Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, Hinkle JL, Cheever KH. Brunner & Suddarth\'s Textbook of Medical-surgical Nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. Foladi N, Salsali M, Alimohamadi H, Pourfarzi F, Homauon N. [Spritual beliefs and health in choronic disease]. Proceedings of the 2nd Conferance Qualitative Research in Health Sciences. 2009:17-9. Persian

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Iran Journal of Nursing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb