Volume 35, Issue 138 (October 2022)                   IJN 2022, 35(138): 422-433 | Back to browse issues page


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Rezaee N, Sheykhi A. Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on the Social Well-being of Retired Older Men In Zahedan, Iran. IJN 2022; 35 (138) :422-433
URL: http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-3567-en.html
1- Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Community Nursing Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan , Iran. , nasrin_rezaee2005@yahoo.com
2- Department of Psychiatric, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
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Introduction
Aging is an inevitable biological process that is associated with reduced health. The number of aged population in the world is increasing. Thus, attention to the health, comfort, and well-being of the elderly is becoming more important. The aging process is associated with many physical, psychological and social changes as well as declined performance, loss of friends, and loss of freedom. The disability in the elderly increases their dependence on others. Therefore, to maintain the health of the elderly, it is necessary to develop preventive health measures. Social well-being is a very important dimension of health for the elderly. This study aims to determine the effect of reminiscence therapy on the social well-being of retired old men in Zahedan, Iran.
Materials and Methods 
This is a quasi-experimental study. The study population consisted of all military retirees referred to the retirement center in Zahedan city. Ninety samples were selected by a convenience sampling method and based on the inclusion criteria and were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=45) and control (n=45). The data collection tool was a two-part self-report questionnaire. The first part surveys the demographic information of the elderly and the second part was Keyes’ social well-being scale-short from. The questionnaire was completed before and two months after the end of the intervention. Reminiscence therapy was provided at six sessions, two days per week, each for 40-60 minutes. The materials of reminiscence therapy was prepared based on recalling memories related to important life events, work-related events, and events after retirement as well as war memories. The control group did not receive any intervention during this period, but after the study, their were invited to attend a reminiscence therapy session.
Data were analyzed in SPSS software, version 16 using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics including paired t-test to compare the pretest and posttest means in each group, independent t-test to compare the means between the groups, and chi-square test to find the differences in terms of qualitative variables. P≤0.05 was statistically significant.
Results
The mean age of participants was 68 years. Their mean score of social well-being in the intervention group increased from 44.82±6.07 to 48.62±6.43 after the intervention. In the control group, it changed from 44.22±5.70 to 44.82±4.83. Independent t-test results showed that the mean score of social well-being after the reminiscence therapy was significantly different between the two groups (P=0.002). Paired t-test results showed a significant difference in the intervention group between the pretest and posttest means (P=0.001).
Discussion
The study showed the significant effect of reminiscence therapy on social well-being of retired older men. The reminiscence intervention seems to be able to create conditions for the elderly person to feel that the society accepted them and provide them with the opportunity to share memories with friends and retired colleagues. In this interaction, the person found a feeling of belonging to the society and the people around him; the feeling that he had dignity and value, which consequently improved his social well-being . Therefore, it is recommended that clinicians should use reminiscence therapy to improve the social conditions of the elderly. In addition, health managers should use reminiscence therapy as a routine intervention in medical and day-care centers for the elderly.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study was approved by the ethics committee of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Code: IR.ZAUMS.REC.1397.379).

Funding
This study is a part of Abbas Ali Sheikhi's master's thesis in psychiatry, Faculty of Nursing, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, which was carried out with the financial support of the Research Vice-Chancellor of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences.

Authors' contributions
Design, and writing Nasrin Rezaee; Data collection, analysis and interpretation: Abbasali Sheykhi. 

Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank all seniors who participated in this study for their cooperation. 


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Type of Study: Research | Subject: nursing
Received: 2022/04/16 | Accepted: 2022/10/23 | Published: 2022/11/1

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