Volume 35, Issue 138 (October 2022)                   IJN 2022, 35(138): 434-447 | Back to browse issues page

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Enayati M, Mardani-Hamooleh M, Farahani Nia M, Haghani S. Relationship Between Spiritual Intelligence and Illness-related Worries in Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure in Mazandaran, Iran. IJN 2022; 35 (138) :434-447
URL: http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-3540-en.html
1- Fatemeh Al-Zahra Medical Education Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
2- Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Nursing Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , mardanihamoole.m@iums.ac.ir
3- Department of Community Heath Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Nursing Care Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
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Heart failure is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases, affecting 1% of people in their 50s and 10% of people in their 80s. Its prevalence in the world is increasing, which can lead to high mortality, medical costs, and hospitalization. People with heart failure, in addition to physical pain, often experience stress, anxiety, depression, and poor quality of life (QoL). One of the problems in these people is the fear of trying to do daily activities and having doubt and worry about the future. These people are often worried about unwanted changes in their future life due to their illness. One of the variables that can help these patients to have a better life is spiritual intelligence (SI). Patients with high SI can adapt to the disease more effectively. In these people, SI help respond better to treatment process. By using mental capacities of individuals, SI helps them to be aware of the transcendent aspects of their existence and increase meaning in life and knowledge of transcendence. The SI enables people to solve their problems in their lives and achieve transcendental goals. Considering the importance of illness-related worries in people with heart failure and given the importance of SI for them, this study aims to determine the relationship between SI and illness-related worries in people with heart failure in Mazandaran, Iran.
Materials and Methods
This is a descriptive-correlational study. The study population includes all people with heart failure admitted to Fatemeh Al-Zahra Hospital affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Of these, 247 were selected. To collect data, a demographic form (surveying age, sex, marital status, educational level, number of children, economic status, history of smoking, blood pressure, history of diabetes, history of heart attack), King & Decicco’s spiritual intelligence scale, and Bagheri et al.’s illness-related worries questionnaire were used. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation test, independent t-test) were used to analyze the collected data in SPSS v.16. The significance level was set at 0.05.
The mean total score of SI was 61.20±16.10 and the mean total score of illness-related worries was 86.70±19.97. Cognitive independence was strongly correlated with all domains of SI, including critical existential thinking, personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion. The SI had a significant relationship with gender (P= 0.001), marital status (P=0.014), economic status (P= 0.002), employment status (P=0.018), education status (P= 0.001), insurance coverage (P= 0.001). The illness-related worries had a significant relationship with gender (P=0.001), history of diabetes (P=0.04), marital status (P=0.001), educational level (P=0.044), and insurance coverage (P=0.01). There was a negative significant relationship between illness-related worries and SI (r=-0.608, P=0.001); as the SI decreases, illness-related worries of patients increase.
To reduce the illness-related worries of people with heart failure, their SI should be improved using related interventions such as SI training programs. Health care providers can implement their patient care plans in a way that help these people better identify the concepts of SI and illness-related worries. There is a need to use a psychiatrist in inpatient wards for people with heart failure to improve SI and reduce illness-related worries in these patients.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study was approved by the ethics committee of Iran University of Medical Sciences (Code: IR.IUMS. REC.1399.1109). All ethical principles were considered in this study. The participants were informed about the study objectives and methods. They were also assured of the confidentiality of their information. They were free to leave the study at any time. If desired, the results would be available to them.

This study is taken from Mohammadreza Enayati's master's thesis in psychiatry at Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.

Authors' contributions
Conceptualization, project administration: Mohamadreza Enayati and Marjan Mardani Hamooleh; Research: Marjan Mardani Hamooleh and Marhamat Farahani Nia; data analysis: Shima Haghani; Editing & review: Marjan Mardani Hamooleh

Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.

The authors would like to thank all participants for their cooperation.

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Type of Study: Research | Subject: nursing
Received: 2022/02/13 | Accepted: 2022/10/23 | Published: 2022/11/1

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