Volume 35, Issue 135 (April 2022)                   IJN 2022, 35(135): 46-59 | Back to browse issues page


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Inanlou M, Seyedfatemi N, Abbasi Z, Haghani S. Assessment of Social Competence of Adolescents With Substance-Abusing Parents in High Schools in West of Tehran. IJN 2022; 35 (135) :46-59
URL: http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-3473-en.html
1- Department of Psychiatric Nursing, Nursing Care Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Psychiatric Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , hanieabbasi256@gmail.com
3- Department of Biostatistics, Nursing Care Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
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Introduction
Substance abuse affects a person’s personal life. It creates many problems and hardships for the family, and society threatens the quality of life of the consumer and his/her family and imposes a heavy burden on them. Substance abuse also affects the children of these families. Parental addiction has a significant impact on children, including helplessness, depression, anxiety, lack of trust in relationships, the development of high-risk behaviors, and feelings of guilt in behavioral problems, as well as poor social competence and emotional regulation compared to other peers. 
Among the difficulties of adolescence are dealing with issues such as identity crisis, social and sexual deviations, emotional disorders (depression), aggression, delinquency, addiction, suicide, and the requirement for a healthy period is social competence. An individual’s success in society depends on the extent to which he or she has achieved the power of desirable social competence for self-actualization. The development of social competence is an essential factor for the future functioning of the individual in society, which also reduces the risk of behavioral and emotional problems. Weaknesses and deficiencies in social competence can lead to many psychological disorders in the growth and development of the child and rejection and humiliation by peers. Considering the need to focus on the characteristics of adolescents living in families involved in substance abuse, especially social competence in them and promoting their health and prevention, as well as due to the different social and cultural conditions in our country and the growing importance of attention to dimensions Psychology of adolescents, this study was conducted to determine the Assessment Social competence of adolescents of Parents with substance use in High Schools in West of Tehran.

Materials & Methods
This research was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 1399. The study population comprised 265 adolescents with parents who used substances employed to study in public primary and secondary schools in the west of Tehran in areas 5, 10, and 18. This was done by the continuous sampling method. The researcher in all the areas mentioned above went to schools in person every day of the week except holidays to do the sampling. 
After the necessary coordination and obtaining informed consent from the research samples, the link to the online questionnaires on WhatsApp was provided to them. Inclusion criteria for eligible students included adolescents aged 14-18 years, no history of known physical and psychological problems based on self-reported adolescents with at least one substance abusive parent, and Living with both parents. Data collection tools included demographic characteristics form and social competence scale picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). The demographic information form had questions about age, gender, level of education, the field of study, economic status, residence status, number of children, mother’s education, father’s education, mother’s job, and father’s job. Data collection started in November 2020 and lasted until March 2021 (four months). To analyze the data in line with the research purpose, descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance) were used in SPSS software v. 16, and the significance level was less than 0.05 was considered.

Results
Based on the findings, the Mean±SD age of adolescents was 14.84±1.03. Most adolescents were boys (83.8%) and in the ninth grade (42.6%). Most adolescents did not choose a field (i.e., in the eighth and ninth grades) (80%). Most adolescents reported the family’s economic status at a moderate level (64.5%). Most adolescents had a rented house in terms of residence status (49.1%). Regarding the number of children in the family, most had two children (52.1%). 84.9% of fathers were employed. 89.1% of mothers were housewives. Regarding the level of education, the majority of fathers had a Middle School Diploma (43%), and the majority of mothers had a diploma (38.1%). The Mean±SD of social competence is 23.09±3.77, respectively, which is close to the maximum score of the scale. The results of numerical indices of social competence of adolescents with parents with substance abuse in terms of demographic information showed that social competence has no statistically significant relationship with any of the demographic variables of adolescents (age, sex, degree, field of study, economic status, location, number of children, mother’s education, father’s education, mother’s job, father’s job).

Discussion
Based on the findings, the adolescent social competence score was close to the maximum score on the scale. It was concluded from this study that social competence had no statistically significant relationship with any of the demographic information of adolescents. In this regard, the researcher, by examining studies consistent and inconsistent with our findings in different societies, cultures, contexts, environments, and examples, concluded that there are conflicting results, differences, and similarities in the areas mentioned. It can justify the consistent and inconsistent results of our study. Finally, our findings can be used as basic information and knowledge for family policy makers and educational administrators to focus more on the social competence of adolescents, especially adolescents with parents with substance abuse, by adopting constructive and educational programs. In addition, school officials can help adolescents of parents of substance abusers identify problems to help them solve them. 
The results of the current study can be used by education officials, including principals, to educate and increase parental awareness, and these vast investments must be trained to guarantee future progress. One of the limitations of this study is that virtual education in schools, due to the COVID-19 pandemic method and lack of access and face-to-face interaction of the researcher with the samples, and due to ethical and cultural issues of the present study could not identify substance abuse in mothers. It was limited to adolescents whose fathers were substance abusers. One of the limitations of this study is that the samples of this study were limited to adolescents who lived with both parents. Also, since the questionnaires were self-reported, this may affect the accuracy of the participants’ answers.

Ethical Considerations

Compliance with ethical guidelines

Ethical permission for this study has been obtained from the ethics committee of the Iran University of Medical Sciences with the code IR.IUMS.REC.1399.385 Participants’ information was kept confidential.

Funding
This article is the result of a master's thesis of a responsible author in the Department of Psychiatric Nursing, School of Nursing, Iran University of Medical Sciences.

Authors' contributions
Responsible for supervision, project management, completion of the final report: Mehrnoosh Inanloo, Naimeh Seyed Fatemi; Editing and finalizing, draft author, data collection: Zahra Abbasi; Research, methodology: Shima Haqqani.

Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Department of Education and Management of Tehran Province, Education Department of Districts 5, 10 and 18 of Tehran, school principals and teachers, parents and adolescents who participated in the study.

 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: nursing
Received: 2021/09/25 | Accepted: 2022/04/21 | Published: 2022/05/1

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