Volume 30, Issue 105 (April 2017)                   IJN 2017, 30(105): 58-67 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Beirami M, Mahmood Alilo M, Zarei A, Zeinali S. Postnatal Attachment and General Health in Easy, Preterm, and Difficult Delivery: A Comparative Study. IJN. 2017; 30 (105) :58-67
URL: http://ijn.iums.ac.ir/article-1-2425-en.html
PhD of Psychology, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran (*Corresponding Auther) Tel:: 09144108154 Email: shirinzeinali@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (588 Views)


Background & Aim: Delivery or childbirth is one of mothers' important life experiences, sometimes associated with problems. The present study aimed to compare postnatal attachment and general health in mothers who have had easy, preterm, and difficult labors.

Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted through descriptive-analytical method and was of causative-comparative type. The study population consisted of all mothers who had referred to state medical centers in Tabriz. Accordingly, 180 mothers were selected, using convenience sampling, and were asked to complete Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Cronbach's alpha reliability and test-retest validity were 0.69 and 0.86, respectively. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: Findings showed that there was a significant difference between the three groups of easy, preterm, and difficult labors in postnatal attachment (F=32.3, P<0.001). Moreover, the results confirmed that there was a significant difference in general health between the three groups of easy, difficult, and preterm deliveries (F=59.7, P<0.001).

Conclusion: Given the results of the present study, as well as previous studies, it can be concluded that having preterm and difficult deliveries have negative effect on mother-child relationship and mother’s mental and physical health.

Full-Text [PDF 569 kb]   (143 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: nursing
Received: 2017/01/14 | Accepted: 2017/04/19 | Published: 2017/04/19

1. Castel S, Creveuil C, Beunard A, Blaizot X, Proia N, Guillois B. Effects of an intervention program on maternal and paternal parenting stress after preterm birth: A randomized trial. Early Hum Dev. 2016;103:17-25.
2. Glover V, Hill J. Sex differences in the programming effects of prenatal stress on psychopathology and stress responses: an evolutionary perspective. Physiol Behav. 2012;106(5):736-40.
3. Cassidy J. Shaver P R. Handbook of Attachment. The Guilford press, New York London.2008; pp. 23-811
4. Condon JT, Corkindale CJ. The assessment of parent-to-infant attachment: development of a self-report questionnaire instrument. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 1998;16(1):57-76.
5. Chorot P, Valiente RM, Magaz AM, Santed MA, Sandin B. Perceived parental child rearing and attachment as predictors of anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms in children: The mediational role of attachment. Psychiatry Res. 2017;253:287-95.
6. Murray L, Arteche A, Fearon P, Halligan S, Croudace T, Cooper P. The effects of maternal postnatal depression and child sex on academic performance at age 16 years: a developmental approach. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51(10):1150-9.
7. Breinholst S, Esbjørn BH, Reinholdt-Dunne ML. Effects of attachment and rearing behavior on anxiety in normal developing youth: A mediational study. Pers Individ Dif. 2015;81:155-61.
8. Pinto TM, Caldas F, Nogueira-Silva C, Figueiredo B. Maternal depression and anxiety and fetal-neonatal growth. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2017.
9. Kothari C, Wiley J, Moe A, Liepman M, Tareen R, Curtis A. Maternal depression is not just a problem early on. Public Health. 2016;137:154-61.
10. Korver-Nieberg N, Berry K, Meijer C, de Haan L, Ponizovsky AM. Associations between attachment and psychopathology dimensions in a large sample of patients with psychosis. Psychiatry Res. 2015;228(1):83-8.
11. Eisenach JC, Pan PH, Smiley R, Lavand’homme P, Landau R, Houle TT. Severity of acute pain after childbirth, but not type of delivery, predicts persistent pain and postpartum depression. Pain. 2008;140(1):87-94.
12. Raynor M, Oates M. The Psychology and psychopathology of pregnancy and childbirth. Myles Textbook for Midwives, 14th ed, Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. 2003.
13. Basu R, Chen H, Li D-K, Avalos LA. The impact of maternal factors on the association between temperature and preterm delivery. Environ Res. 2017;154:109-14.
14. Premkumar A, Henry DE, Moghadassi M, Nakagawa S, Norton ME. The interaction between maternal race/ethnicity and chronic hypertension on preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;215(6):787. e1-. e8.
15. Kaninghahm G. Williams obstetrics. Translated by Valdan M. Arjomand Press. 2014.
16. Voegtline KM, Stifter CA, Investigators FLP. Late-preterm birth, maternal symptomatology, and infant negativity. Infant Behavior and Development. 2010;33(4):545-54.
17. Berk L. Development through the life span. Translated by Seyyed Mohamadi Y. Tehran: Arasbaran Press.2008
18. Pichler-Stachl E, Pichler G, Baik N, Urlesberger B, Alexander A, Urlesberger P, et al. Maternal stress after preterm birth: Impact of length of antepartum hospital stay. Women and Birth. 2016;29(6):e105-e9.
19. Poehlmann J, Fiese BH. The interaction of maternal and infant vulnerabilities on developing attachment relationships. Dev Psychopathol. 2001;13(1):1-11.
20. Zeinali S, Mazeheri MA, Sadeghi MA, Jabari M. [The Relationships of Mother's Attachment to Infant and Mothers'psychological Characteristics to Feeding Problem in Infants]. developmental Psychology Journal. 2011; 29(8),55-66. Persian
21. Castel S, Creveuil C, Beunard A, Blaizot X, Proia N, Guillois B. Effects of an intervention program on maternal and paternal parenting stress after preterm birth: A randomized trial. Early Hum Dev. 2016;103:17-25.
22. Li Y, Long Z, Cao D, Cao F. Maternal history of child maltreatment and maternal depression risk in the perinatal period: a longitudinal study. Child Abuse Negl. 2017;63:192-201.
23. Surkan PJ, Patel SA, Rahman A. Preventing infant and child morbidity and mortality due to maternal depression. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016;36:156-68.
24. Estura J. stress or tension, new century diesease. Translated by Dadsetan P. Tehran: Roshd press. 1991
25. Bakhshayesh A, Mortazavi M. [The relationship between sexual satisfaction, general health and marital satisfaction in couples]. J Applied Psychology. 2010; 3(12);73-85. Persian
26. Choi KW, Sikkema KJ, Vythilingum B, Geerts L, Faure SC, Watt MH, et al. Maternal childhood trauma, postpartum depression, and infant outcomes: Avoidant affective processing as a potential mechanism. J Affect Disord. 2017; 211: 107-15
27. Kersting A, Kroker K, Steinhard J, Hoernig-Franz I, Wesselmann U, Luedorff K, et al. Psychological impact on women after second and third trimester termination of pregnancy due to fetal anomalies versus women after preterm birth—a 14-month follow up study. Archives of women's mental health. 2009;12(4):193–201.
28. Powell-Jackson T, Pereira SK, Dutt V, Tougher S, Haldar K, Kumar P. Cash transfers, maternal depression and emotional well-being: Quasi-experimental evidence from India’s Janani Suraksha Yojana programme. Soc Sci Med. 2016;162:210-8.
29. Petrou S, Abangma G, Johnson S, Wolke D, Marlow N. Costs and health utilities associated with extremely preterm birth: evidence from the EPICure study. Value Health. 2009;12(8):1124-34.
30. Staneva A, Bogossian F, Pritchard M, Wittkowski A. The effects of maternal depression, anxiety, and perceived stress during pregnancy on preterm birth: a systematic review. Women and Birth. 2015;28(3):179-93.
31. Lang AJ, Sorrell JT, Rodgers CS, Lebeck MM. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of labor pain. Euro J pain. 2006;10(3):263-70
32. Quarini C, Pearson RM, Stein A, Ramchandani PG, Lewis G, Evans J. Are female children more vulnerable to the long-term effects of maternal depression during pregnancy? J Affect Disord. 2016;189:329-35.
33. Meijssen D, Wolf MJ, Koldewijn K, Houtzager BA, Van Wassenaer A, Tronick E, et al. The effect of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program on mother–infant interaction after very preterm birth. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2010;51(11):1287-95.
34. Meijssen D, Wolf M-J, van Bakel H, Koldewijn K, Kok J, van Baar A. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention. Infant Behavior and Development. 2011;34(1):72-80.
35. Lotf Alizadeh M. Mohamadi A. Kamandi SH. Bagheri S. [Epidemy of preterm delivery and risk factors]. Journal of unproducivity. 2006:3; 93-100. Persian

© 2015 All Rights Reserved | Iran Journal of Nursing

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb